CONSTITUTION, CIVIL SOCIETY AND THE FIGHT AGAINST RADICALISM: THE EXPERIENCE OF INDONESIA AND AUSTRIA

Asfa Widiyanto

Abstract


The German scholar Ernst-Wolfgang Böckenförde (b. 1930) is reported to have said that “the free secular state lives on premises that it cannot itself guarantee”. These premises include the morality, commitment to public order and the like. In this train of thought, we may say that the constitution is in need of strong civil society so as to maintain the well-being of the state. This article employs documents, observation and interviews to highlight the experience of Indonesia and Austria in minimizing radicalism. The first concern of this paper deals with the interplays between constitution and civil society in eradicating radical tendencies within Indonesian and Austrian society, most particularly within the Muslim communities of these respective countries. The second concern of the paper delves in which ways expressions of Islam in Indonesia and Austria contribute to the making of peace in the respective societies. Islam is recognized as religion in both countries. The notions of “European Islam” and “Indonesian Islam” are believed to shape the current-state of eradicating radicalism in the two countries.

Keywords


Constitution; civil society; radicalism; Indonesian Islam; European Islam

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abdullah, Taufik. 2013. “Islam, State and Society in Democratising Indonesia: A Historical Reflection”. In Islam in Indonesia: Contrasting Images and Interpretations. ed. Jajat Burhanuddin and Kees van Dijk. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

Amirachman, Alpha, Andar Nubowo and Azaki Khoirudin, eds. 2015. Islam Berkemajuan untuk Peradaban Dunia (Progressive Islam for the World Civilization). Bandung: Mizan.

Armstrong, Karen. 2001. The Battle for God: A History of Fundamentalism. New York: The Random House Publishing Group.

“Austria passes controversial reforms to 1912 Islamic Law”. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-31629543. February 25, 2015.

Azra, Azyumardi. 2013. “Distinguishing Indonesian Islam: Some Lessons to Learn”. In Islam in Indonesia: Contrasting Images and Interpretations. ed. Jajat Burhanuddin and Kees van Dijk. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

Bougarel, Xavier. 2007. “Bosnian Islam as ‘European Islam’: Limits and Shifts of a Concept”. In Islam in Europe: Diversity, Identity and Influence. ed. Aziz al-Azmeh. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

“Bundesgesetz über die äußeren Rechtsverhältnisse islamischer Religionsgesellschaften - Islamgesetz 2015“ (Federal Act on the external legal status of Islamic religious communities - Islamic law of 2015). http://www.derislam.at/deradmin/news/Islamgesetz_2015.pdf. Accessed November 21, 2015.

Burhanuddin, Jajat. 2007. Islamic Knowledge, Authority and Political Power: The ‘Ulama’ in Colonial Indonesia. Doctoral Thesis. Leiden: Universiteit Leiden, 2007.

Carle, Robert. 2011. “Tariq Ramadan and the Quest for Moderate Islam”. Society 48 (1): 58-69.

“Das Bundes-Verfassungsgesetz“ (Federal Constitution). https://www.parlament.gv.at/PERK/VERF/BVG/index.shtml. Accessed February 2, 2016.

“Das neue Islamgesetzt im Überblick“ (New Islamic Law: An Overview). http://religion.orf.at/stories/2696523/. Accessed February 1, 2016.

Discussion with Carla Amina Baghajati, October 20, 2015.

Discussion with Rüdiger Lohlker, November 3, 2015.

Discussion with SR, November 26, 2015.

Edwards, Michael. 2011. “Civil Society and the Geometry of Human Relations”. In The Oxford Handbook of Civil Society. ed. Michael Edwards. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Franke, Edith. 2006. “Zwischen Integration und Konflikt: Religiöse Pluralität in Indonesien” (Between Integration and Conflict: Religious Plurality in Indonesia). In Religionen Nebeneinander: Modelle religiöser Vielfalt in Ost- und Südostasien (Religions side by side: Models of Religious Diversity in East and Southeast Asia). eds. Edith Franke & Michael Pye. Berlin and Zürich: LIT, 61-82.

Ghadban, Ralph. 2006. Tariq Ramadan und die Islamisierung Europas (Tariq Ramadan and the Islamization of Europe). Berlin: Verlag Hans-Schiler.

Ghannouchi, Rached. 2016. “Fight ISIS with Democracy”. http://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2016/02/tunisia-democracy-ennahdha-isis/458703/. Accessed February 2, 2016.

Hefner, Robert. 2013. “Indonesia in the global scheme of things: Sustaining the virtuous circle of education, associations and democracy”. In Islam in Indonesia: Contrasting Images and Interpretations. ed. Jajat Burhanudin and Kees van Dijk. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

Heine, Susanne, Rüdiger Lohlker and Richard Potz. 2012. Muslime in Österreich (Muslims in Austria). Innsbruck: Tyrolia.

Joseph, Craig M. and Barnaby Ridel. 2008. “Islamic Schools, Assimilation and the Concept of Muslim American Character. In Being and Belonging: Muslims in the United States since 9/11. ed. Katherine Pratt Ewing. New York: Rusell Sage.

Kamali, Masoud. 2006. Multiple Modernities, Civil Society and Islam: The Case of Iran and Turkey. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press.

Lohlker, Rüdiger. 2012. “Entwicklung eines österreichischen Islam” (The Development of Austrian Islam). In Ostarrichislam: Fragmente Achthundertjähriger gemeinsamer Geschichte (Austrian Islam: Fragments of Eight Hundred Years of Common History). eds. Amena Shakir, Gernot Galib Stanfel and Martin M. Weinberger. Vienna: New Academic Press.

Miichi, Ken. 2011. “Penetration of ‘Moderate‘ Islamism in Contemporary Indonesia”. In Popular Movements and Democratization in the Islamic World. ed. Masatochi Kisaichi. London and New York: Routledge.

Miller, Donald E. 2011. “Civil Society and Religion”. In The Oxford Handbook of Civil Society. ed. Michael Edwards. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Mohamad, Mohamad Azmi bin Haji.2014. European Islam and Reform: A Comparative Study of the Theologies of Yusuf al-Qaradawi and Tariq Ramadan. Doctoral thesis. Birmingham: University of Birmingham.

Naskah Undang-undang Dasar 1945 (The Document of 1945 Indonesian Constitution).

“New Islamic Law Sparks Controversy in Austria”, http://www.dw.com/en/new-islamic-law-sparks-controversy-in-austria/a-18276225, February 2, 2015.

Pipes, Daniel. 2000. „Review of To be a European Muslim: A Study of Islamic Sources in the European Context”. Middle East Quarterly 7 (4).

Potz, Richard. 2012. „100 Jahre Islamgesetz“ (100 Years of Islamic Law). In Ostarrichislam: Fragmente Achthundertjaehriger gemeinsamer Geschichte (Austrian Islam: Fragments of Eight Hundred Years of Common History). eds. Amena Shakir, Gernot Galib Stanfel and Martin M. Weinberger. Vienna: New Academic Press.

“Radical Ideologist”. Encyclopaedia Brittanica http://www.britannica.com/topic/radical-ideologist. Accessed February 2, 2016.

„Regelungen für Muslime: Österreich verabschiedet Islamgesetz“ (Regulations for Muslims: Austria Adopt Islamic Law). http://www.spiegel.de/politik/ausland/islamgesetz-oesterreich-regelt-islam-europaeischer-praegung-a-1020536.html. Published February 25, 2015.

Ramadan, Tariq. 2004. Western Muslims and the Future of Islam. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ramadan, Tariq. 2015. To be a European Muslim: A Study of Islamic Sources in the European Context. Leicestershire: Islamic Foundation.

Ranstorp, Magnis. 2009. Preventing Violent Radicalization and Terrorism: The Case of Indonesia. Stockholm: Swedish National Defence College.

Roy, Oliver. 1994. The Failure of Political Islam. Trans. Carol Volk. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Sahal, Akhmad and Munawir Azis, eds. 2015. Islam Nusantara: Dari Ushul Fiqh Hingga Konsep Historis (Archipelagic Islam: From the Principles of Jurisprudence to the Historical Concept). Bandung: Mizan.

Schedler, Andreas. 2001. “Measuring Democratic Consolidation”. Studies in Comparative International Developments, 36 (1).

Schedler, Andreas. 1998. “What is Democratic Consolidation?” Journal of Democracy, 9 (2).

Shakir, Amena, Gernot Galib Stanfel and Martin M. Weinberger, „Islamgesetz 1912“ (Islamic Law 1912). In Ostarrichislam: Fragmente Achthundertjähriger gemeinsamer Geschichte (Austrian Islam: Fragments of Eight Hundred Years of Common History). eds. Amena Shakir, Gernot Galib Stanfel and Martin M. Weinberger. Vienna: New Academic Press.

Syamsuddin, Din. 2010. “Islam and Democracy in Indonesia”. In State. Law and Religion in Pluralistic Societies: Austrian and Indonesian Perspectives. eds. Richard Potz, Astrid Hafner and Sabine Kroissenbrunner. Vienna: Vienna University Press.

Timmermann, Christiane et al. 2007. “Introduction”. In Faith-Based Radicalism: Christianity, Islam and Judaism between Constructive Activism and Destructive Fanaticism. eds. Christiane Timmermann. Brussels: Peter Lang.

van Bruinessen, Martin and Farid Wajdi. 2006. “Syu’un ijtima’iyah and the kiai rakyat: Traditionalist Islam, Civil Society and Social Concerns”. In Indonesian Transitions. eds. Henk Schulte Nordholt and Ireen Hoogenboom. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.

van Niewenhuijze, C.AO. 1985. Aspects of Islam in Post Colonial Indonesia. The Hague: W. van Hoeve, 1985.

Wahyudi, Agus. 2015. “Dealing with Difference/Antagonism: Pancasila in the Post-Suharto Indonesia”. Conference Paper, ISA Global South Caucus Singapore.

“Waspadai ISIS, Gus Mus: NU dan Muhammadiyah Perkuat Diri“ (To Counter the ISIS Movement, Gus Mus Suggests the NU and Muhammadiyah to Strengthen Themselves). http://news.detik.com/berita-jawa-timur/3074353/waspadai-gerakan-isis-gus-mus-nu-dan-muhammadiyah-tetap-perkuat-diri. Accessed August 19, 2016.

Widiyanto, Asfa. 2014. “Salahuddin Wahid and the Defence of Minority Rights in Contemporary Indonesia”. Al-Jami’ah: Journal of Islamic Studies 52 (2): 271-307.

Widiyanto, Asfa. 2015. “Fem ale Religious Authority, Religious Minority and the Ahmadiyya: The Activism of Sinta Nuriyah Wahid”. Journal of Indonesian Islam 9 (1): 1-24.

Widiyanto, Asfa. 2016. Religious Authority and the Prospects for Religious Pluralism in Indonesia: The Role of Traditionalist Muslim Scholars. Zürich: Lit Verlag.

Woolcock, Michael. 2011. “Civil Society and Social Capital”. In The Oxford Handbook of Civil Society. ed. Michael Edwards. Oxford: Oxford University Press.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.18784/analisa.v1i2.362

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2016 Analisa

Creative Commons License
Analisa: Journal of Social and Religion is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

 hit counter joomla View My Stats