THE CHRONICLE OF TERRORISM AND ISLAMIC MILITANCY IN INDONESIA

Zakiyah Zakiyah

Abstract


This paper examines the chronicle of terrorism in Indonesia and the relationship
between terrorism and Islamic militancy in this nation. This research focused
on bombing cases from 2001 to 2012 Data was gathered through documentary
research including primary and secondary resources. This research shows that
after the fall of the Suharto regime in 1998, there were bomb attacks on various
targets and militant extremists were able to return to Indonesia after long period
of exile abroad. They started again their activities including disseminating their
radical ideology, building networks and recruiting new members in Indonesia, as
well as preparing for militant actions. The perpetrators of these terror attacks were
mostly associated with the Islamic radical groups like Jemaah Islamiah and Majlis
Mujahidin Indonesia. These two militant groups had a close relationship with Darul
Islam, an organization founded during the colonial era that aimed to establish an
Islamic state and to apply Syariah as a state law. In addition, both groups became a
political window for al-Qaeda in Indonesia.


Keywords


terrorism; Islam; Jihad; militancy; radicalism

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abdullah, Taufik. 2013. “Islam, state and society in democratizing Indonesia, a historical

reflection”. in Islam in Indonesia: contrasting images and interpretation Burhanudin, Jajat and Dijk, Kees van, eds, Amsterdam: Amsterdam the Netherland.

Abuza, Zachary. 2003. Militant Islam in Southeast Asia, crucible of terror. London: Lynne Riene Publisher.

Abuza, Zachary. 2005. “Al Qaeda comes to Southeast Asia.” In Terrorism and violence in Southeast Asia transnational challenges to states and regional stability. Smith, Paul.J, ed. Armonk, New York, London, England: M.E.Sharpe.

Aly, Anne. 2011. Terrorism and global security, historical and contemporary perspectives. South Yara Australia: Palgrave Macmillan.

Ankersen, Christhoper. 2007. “Introduction.” In Understanding global terror. Ankersen, Christhoper, ed. Cambridge: Polity.

Azra, Azyumardi. 2003. “Bali and Southeast Asian Islam: debunking the Myth.” In After Bali

the threat of terrorism in Southeast Asia. Ramakrishna, Kumar and Tan, See Seng, eds. Singapore: World Scientific and Institute of Defense and Strategic Studies.

Azra, Azyumardi. 2008. “Elections, Muslim politics and democratization in Indonesia.”

In Muslim politics and democratization in Indonesia. Annual Indonesia Lecture series number 28. Clayton: Monash Asia Institute.

Bali post. 2005. “Delapan bom guncang Kuta dan Jimbaran (eight bombs exploded in Kuta and Jimbaran.” Balipost. Accessed 1 October 2014 from: http://www.balipost.co.id/

Balipostcetak/2005/10/2/b7hl.html.

Barnidge, Jr. Robert.P. 2006. Non-state actors and terrorism, applying the law of state responsibility and the due diligence principle. The Hague: T.M.C Asser Press.

Barton, Greg. 2004. Indonesia’s struggle, Jemaah Islamiyah and the soul of Islam. Sydney:

University of New South Wales Press.

Barton, Greg. 2005. “Islam, Islamism and politics in Indonesia.” In After Bali the threat of

terrorism in Southeast Asia. Ramakrishna, Kumar and Tan, See Seng. eds. Singapore: World Scientifi and Institute of Defense and Strategic Studies.

Batley, Brek. 2003. The complexity of dealing with radical Islam in Southeast Asia: a case study of Jemaah Islamiyah. Canberra: Strategic defense studies center the Australian National

University.

Bbc. 2013. “Rangkaian aksi bom bunuh diri di Indonesia (a serries of suicide

bombing in Indonesia).” Bbc. 3 June 2013. Accessed on 4 October 2014. From: http://www.bbc.co.uk/indonesia/berita_indonesia/2013/06/130603_kompilasi_

bom_bunuhdiri.shtml

.

Bbc.2012. “Kasasi Abu Bakar Ba’asyir ditolak.” Bbc. February 2012. Accessed on 14, July

from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/indonesia/berita_indonesia/2012/02/120227_baasyir.shtml.

Benda, Harry.J. 1962. “The religion of Java, by Cliffrd Geertz, Glencoe: the free press, 1960,

x,392.” The Journal of Asian Studies. 21 (03): 403-406.

Beritasatu. 2011. “Ideology Tauhid Wal Jihad dekat dengan JI” (the ideology of Tauhid Wal

Jihad was closed with JI). Beritasatu, 2011. Accessed on 8 October 2014. From: http://

sp.beritasatu.com/home/ideologi-tauhidwal-jihad-dekat-dengan-ji/6780.

Chalk, Peter. 2003. “Al Qaeda and its links to terrorist group in Asia.” In The new terrorism

anatomy, trends and counter strategies. Tan, Andre and Ramakrisna, Kumar, eds.

Singapore: Eastern University Press.

Chim, Harvey and Si Yew, Woon and Song, Colin. 2007. “Managing burn victims of suicide

bombing attacks: outcomes, lessons learnt, and changes made from three attacks in Indonesia.” Critical Care. 11. (1): 2-9.

Conboy, Ken. 2004. Intel inside Indonesian intelligence service. Jakarta-Singapore

Equinox Publishing.

Crouch, Harold. 2005. “Radical Islam in Indonesia; some misperceptions.” In Islamic

terrorism in Indonesia; myths and realities. Vicziany, Marika and Neville, David Wright,

eds. Clayton: Monash Asia Institute.

Desker, Barry. 2003. “Foreword.” In After Bali the threat of terrorism in Southeast Asia. Ramakrishna, Kumar and Tan, See Seng, eds. Singapore: World Scientifi and Institute of Defense and Strategic Studies.

Dolnik, Adam. 2007. “Suicide terrorism and Southeast Asia.” In A handbook of terrorism and insurgency in Southeast Asia. Tan, Andrew.T.H, ed. Cheltenham, UK and

Northamtom, USA: Edward Elgar.

Drummond, Jonathan. T. 2002. “From the Northwest imperialism to global jihad: social

psychological aspects of the construction of enemy, political violence and terror.” In The

Psychology of terrism volume 1 a public understanding. Stout, Chris.E, ed. London:

Praeger.

Du Bois, Cora. 1961. “The Religion of Java by Cliffrd Geertz.” American Anthropologist,

New Series. 63. (3): 602-604. Effndy, Bahtiar. 2003. Islam and the state in

Indonesia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.

Fealy, Greg. 2004. “Islamic radicalism in Indonesia the faltering revival.” Southeast Asian Affirs. 2004 (1): 104-121.

Fealy, Greg. 2005. “Half a century of violent jihad in Indonesia: a historical and ideological

comparison of Darul Islam and Jema’ah Islamiyah.” In Islamic terrorism in Indonesia;

myths and realities. Vicziany, Marika and Neville, David Wright, eds. Clayton: Monash

Asia Institute.

Fealy, Greg. 2007. “Militant Java-based Islamic movement.” In A handbook of terrorism and

insurgency in Southeas Asia. Tan, Andrew.T.H, ed. Cheltenham, UK-Northhamton USA:

Edward Elgar.

Feilard, Andree and Madinier. 2011. The end of innocence? Indonesian Islam and the

temptation of radicalism. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.

George, Alexander. L and Bennet, Andrew. 2005. Case studies and Theory Development in the Social Sciences. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Gerring, John. 2004. “What is a case study and what is it good for?” American Political

Science Review 98(2): 341-354.

Gunaratna, Rohan. 2003. “Al Qaeda’s origins, threat and its likely future.” In Terrorism in the Asia-Pacifi threat and response. Gunaratna, Rohan, ed. Singapore: Eastern Gunaratna,

Rohan University Press.

Hafiz, Tatik.S. 2003. “Assessing Indonesia’s vulnerability in the wake of the Americanled attack on Iraq.” In After Bali the threat of terrorism in Southeast Asia. Ramakrishna,

Kumar and Tan, See Seng, eds. Singapore: World Scientifi and Institute of Defense and

Strategic Studies.

Harsawaskita, Adrianus and Laksmana, Evan A. 2007. Rethinking terrorism in Indonesia:

Lessons from the 2002 Bali bombing. UNISCI Discussion Papers.

Hasan, Noorhaidi. 2006. Laskar jihad: Islam, militancy, and the quest for identity in postnew order Indonesia. Ithaca, New York: Cornell Southeast Asia Program Publication.

Jamhari and Jajang, Jahroni. 2004. Gerakan salaf radikal di Indonesia. Jakarta: PT

RajaGrafido Persada.

Jones, David Martin. 2010. “Informal networks in Southeast Asia: the case of Jemaah Islamiah and its affiates.” In Terrorism, security and the power of informal networks. Jones, David Martin and Lane, Ann and Schulte, Paul, eds. Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA.USA: Edwar Elgar.

Jones, Sidney and Solahudin. 2014. “Terrorism in Indonesia a fading threat?” Southeast Asian Affairs. 2014: 139-147.

Jones, Sidney. 2005. “Terrorism and ‘radical Islam’ in Indonesia.” In Islamic terrorism in Indonesia; myths and realities. Vicziany, Marika and Neville, David Wright, eds.

Clayton: Monash Asia Institute.

Khan, L.Ali. 2006. A theory of international terrorism, understanding Islamic militancy.

Leiden: Koninklijke Brill NV.

Kingsbury, Damien and Fernandes, Clinton. 2005. “Terrorism in archipelagic Southeast Asia.” In Violence in between, conflct and security in archipelagic Southeast Asia. Kingsbury, Damien, ed. Clayton and Singapore: Monash Asia Institute and Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.

Kompas, 2011. “Ansyaad: terorisme masih ancaman serious (Ansyaad: terrorism have became a serious threat).” Kompas. July, 2011. Accessed August, 10, 2014. From: http://nasional.kompas.com/read/2011/06/23/12472326/Ansyaad.Terorisme.Masih.Ancaman.Serius.

Kompas. 2010. “Jasad Dulmatin dipulangkan; Warga Aceh Kembali dicekam Kondisi

Konflk.” Kompas. Friday, 12 March 2010.

Kompas. 2011. “Indonesia jadi medan perang baru (Indonesia become a new battlefield).” Kompas, 2 May 2011. Accessed 8 October 2014 from: http://national.kompas.com/

read/2011/05/02/09074017/Indonesai.Jadi.Medan.Perang.Baru.

Kristanti, Yunita. 2009. “Mengapa bomber dijuluki calon pengantin.” Vivanews, 12

August 2009. Accessed on 6 October 2014 from http://nasional.news.viva.co.id/news/read/82072 mengapa_bomber_dijuluki___calon_pengantin_

.

Kusaeni, Akhmad. 2009.” Mengapa pengebom bunuh diri disebut ‘pengantin’ (why the

suicide bombers were called as ‘pengantin’).” Antaranews, 13 August 2009. Accessed on 8

October 2014 from: http://www.antaranews.com/berita/150824/mengapa-pengebombunuh-diri-disebut-pengantin.

Liputan6. 2009. “Jejak bom dan perburuan teroris (bomb track and terrorist prey).” Liputan6, 21 July, 2009. Accessed on 7 October 2014. From: http://news.liputan6.com/read/237746/

jejak-bom-dan-perburuan-teroris.

Mietzner, Marcus. 2009. Military politics, Islam and the State in Indonesia, from transition

to democratic consolidation. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.

Natalia, Maria. 2012. “Aksa: Umar Patek terbukti terlibat bom Bali dan bom natal (Aksa: Umar Patek was proved on his involvement in Bali bomb and Christmast eve bomb).” Kompas, May, 21, 2012. Accessed September, 4, 2014. From http://nasional.kompas.com/

read/2012/05/21/13434229/Jaksa.Umar.Patek.Terbukti.Terlibat.Bom.Bali.dan.Bom.Natal.

Pavlova, Elena. 2003. “An ideology response to Islamist terroris: Theoritical and operational

overview.” In Terrorism in the Asia-Pacific threat and response. Gunaratna, Rohan,

ed.Singapore: Eastern University Press.

Pavlova, Elena. 2007. “Jemaah Islamiah according to PUPJI.” In A handbook of terrorism and insurgency in Southeast Asia.

Tan, Andrew.T.H, ed. Cheltenham, UK and Northamtom, USA: Edward Elgar.

Pusponegoro, Aryono D. 2003. “Terrorism in Indonesia.” Prehospital and Disaster Medicine. 18 (2): 100.

Ramakrishna, Kumar and Seng Tan, See. 2003. “Is Southeast Asia a terrorist haven?” In After Bali the threat of terrorism in Southeast Asia. Ramakrishna, Kumar and Tan, See Seng, eds.

Singapore: World Scientifi and Institute of Defence and Strategic Studies.

Republika. 2009. “Kronologis keterlibatan Ibrohim dengan bom Kuningan (the

chronology of how Ibrohim was connected with Kuningan bomb).” Republika, 13 August

Accessed on 7 October 2014 from: http://www.republika.co.id/berita/breakingnews/nasional/09/08/13/68879-kronologisketerlibatan-ibrohim-dengan-bom-kuningan.

Ricklef, M.C. 2012. Islamisation and its opponents in Java, c.1930 to the present. Singapore: NUS Press.

Sahni, Ajai. 2003. “The locus of error, has the gravity of terrorism “shifted” in Asia?” In

Terrorism in the Asia-Pacific threat and response. Gunaratna, Rohan, ed.Singapore: Eastern University Press.

Saifullah, Muhammad. 2009. “Teroris bangkit, setelah “tidur” 14 tahun (The emerging of

terrorist after 14 years of sleeping).” Okezone. com, October, 15, 2009. Accesses September, 4, 2014. From: http://news.okezone.com/read/2009/10/15/343/265908/terorisbangkit-setelah-tidur-14-tahun.

Santoso, Fery. 2012. “Osama pernah bantu 30.000 dollar AS (Osama had given US $ 30,000). ”Kompas, March, 22, 2012. Accessed August, 21, 2014. From http://nasional.kompas.com/read/2012/03/22/13564267/Osama.Pernah.Bantu.30.000.Dollar.AS.

Sebastian, Leonard.C. 2003. “The Indonesian dilemma: how to participate in the war on

terror wtgot becoming a national security state.” In After Bali the threat of terrorism

in Southeast Asia. Ramakrishna, Kumar and Tan, See Seng, eds. Singapore: World Scientific and Institute of Defence and Strategic Studies.

Sindonews. 2012. “Isi lengkap testimony Bayu terduga teroris Solo (a completed testimony

of Bayu, the suspected terrorist of Solo).”Sindonews.com, 7 September 2012. Accessed

October 2014. From: http://nasional.sindonews.com/read/670735/14/isi-lengkaptestimoni-bayu-terduga-teroris-solo.

Singh, Bilveer. 2003. ASEAN, Australia and the management of Jemaah Islamiyah threat. Canberra: Strategic and Defence Studies Centre the Australian National University.

Singh, Bilveer. 2004. “The challenge of militant Islam and terrorism in Indonesia.”Australian Journal of International Affirs 58 (1): 47-68.

Singh, Daljit. 2003. “ASEAN counter-terror strategies and cooperation: how effctive?” In After Bali the threat of terrorism in Southeast Asia. Ramakrishna, Kumar and Tan, See Seng,

eds. Singapore: World Scientific and Institute of Defense and Strategic Studies.

Siradz, Fachri. 2009. “Implikasi di balik terror bom di Marriot dan Ritz Carlton (the effect of Bomb terror at Marriot and Ritz Carlton).”Indosiar, 17 July, 2009. Accessed 10 October

From: http://www.indosiar.com/berita-terkini/implikasi-di-balik-teror-bomdi-marriott-dan-ritz-carlton_81290.html.

Smith, Anthony.L. 2005. “Terrorism and the political landscape in Indonesia: the fragile

post-Bali consensus.” In Terrorism and violence in Southeast Asia transnational challenges to states and regional stability. Smith, Paul.J, ed. Armonk, New York, London, England: M.E.Sharpe.

Smith, Steve. 2002. “Unanswered questions.” In Worlds in collision terror and the future of

global order. Booth, Ken and Dunne, Tim, eds. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Suara Merdeka. 2005. “Dr. Azhari ledakkan diri.” Suara Merdeka, 10 November 2005. Accessed 7 October 2014 from: http://www.suaramerdeka.com/harian/0511/10/nas01.

htm.

Suhendi, Adi. 2012. “Dana Osama bin Laden dipakai untuk bom Bali 1 (Osama bin Laden’s fund was used for Bali Bomb 1).” Kompas, 26 March 2012, Accessed August, 20,

from: http://nasional.kompas.com/read/2012/03/26/14001755/Dana.Osama.

bin.Laden.Dipakai.untuk.Bom.Bali.I.

Sukma, Rizal. 2003. “Indonesia and the challenge of radical Islam after October 12.” In After Bali the threat of terrorism in Southeast Asia. Ramakrishna, Kumar and Tan, See Seng, eds. Singapore: World Scientific and Institute of Defence and Strategic Studies.

Thayer, Carlyle. A. 2005a. “New terrorism in Southeast Asia.” In After Bali the threat of terrorism in Southeast Asia. Ramakrishna, Kumar and Tan, See Seng, eds. Singapore: World Scientific and Institute of Defense and Strategic Studies.

Thayer, Caryle. A. 2005b. “Al Qaeda and political terrorism in Southeast Asia.” In Terrorism and violence in Southeast Asia transnational challenges to states and regional stability. Smith, Paul.J, ed. Armonk, New York, London, England: M.E.Sharpe.

The Economist. 2010. Asia: arrest of a smiling extremist; Terrorism in Indonesia.. Accessed 7 October 2014 from: http://search.proquest. com/docview/743966035?accountid=14723.

Tibi, Bassam. 2012. Islamism and Islam. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.

Tumanggor, Robert Eryanto. 2007. “Indonesia’s counter terrorism policy.” UNISCI Discussion papers. 15: 87-110.

Varsney, Ashutosh and Tadjoeddin, Mohammad Zulfan. and Panggabean, Rizal. 2008. “Creating datasets in information-poor nvironments: patterns of collective violence

in Indonesia 1990-2003.” Journal of East Asian Studies 8(3). 361-394, 521-522.

Viva news. 2011. “Kenapa Teroris Pilih Cirebon dan Solo? Strategi teror dimodifiasi. Jangkauan teror diperluas.” Vivanews, 27 September 2011. Accessed, 10 May 2014 from:

http://us.nasional.news.viva.co.id/news/read/250290-kenapa-teroris-pilih-cirebondan-solo-.

Voughn, Bruce and Chanlet-Avery, Emma and Lum, Thomas and Manyin, Mark and Niksch,

Larry. 2008. Terrorism in Southeast Asia. Newyork: Novinka books.

Widjaya, Ismoko. 2011. “Daftar panjang calon ‘pengantin’ (a long list of candidate of

‘pengantin’).” Vivanews, 27 April 2011. Accessed on 7 October 2014. From: http://

nasional.news.viva.co.id/news/read/216915-daftar-panjang-calon--pengantin-.

Wildan, Muhammad. 2013. “Mapping radical Islam: a study of the proliferation of radical

Islam in Solo Central Java.” In Contemporary development in Indonesian Islam. Van Bruinessen, Martin, ed. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.

Williams.M.G, Clive. “The question of “link” between al-Qaeda and Southeast Asia.” In After Bali the threat of terrorism in Southeast Asia. Ramakrishna, Kumar and Tan, See Seng, eds. Singapore: World Scientifi and Institute of Defense and Strategic Studies.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.18784/analisa.v1i1.276

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2016 Analisa

Creative Commons License
Analisa: Journal of Social and Religion is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

 hit counter joomla View My Stats